There is a taxi rank in the main square, Piazza Bra. Here is the telephone number:
Piazza Bra taxi rank Tel. +39 045 8030565
There is also a radio taxi service:
Radiotaxi -24 hour service Tel. +39 045 532666
Plenty of other taxi ranks also:
Porta Nuova Railway Station taxi rank T el. +39 045 8004528
Daytime service in Piazza Erbe Tel. +39 045 8030561
Daytime service at Borgo Trento Hospital Tel. +39 045 8349511
Daytime service at Porta San Giorgio Tel. +39 045 8349510
Daytime service at Porta Vescovo Tel. +39 045 8030042
Daytime service at Porta San Zeno Tel. +39 045 8349500
How far outside the city are you talking about, a short distance or many many miles away?
Most Italian towns have formal tariffs for taxis. There are normally at least 2 rates, tariff #1 for inside the city, and a higher tariff #2 for outside the city (or city center or whatever they define it to be).
In addition, it's not unusual for cities to allow taxi drivers to charge twice of what is on the meter if the taxi goes too far out of the city - this is to pay the drive for the trip back since it's unlikely that he can pick up a fare out in the countryside.
But unless you are going too far away, I am sure that most if not all of the taxi companies listed above can help you out...
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